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शब्द आवृत्ति parole ( pər oʊ l) शब्द प्रारूप: 3rd person singular present tense paroles, present participle paroling, past tense, past participle paroled 1. अगणनीय संज्ञा If a prisoner is given parole, he or she is released before the official end of their prison sentence and has to promise to behave well. Although sentenced to life, he will become eligible for parole after serving 10 years. 2. क्रिया [ usually passive] If a prisoner is paroled, he or she is given parole. He faces at most 12 years in prison and could be paroled after eight years. [ be VERB -ed] COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers संबंधित सामग्री देखें parole in American English ( pəˈroʊl) संज्ञा 2. the condition of being on parole 3. US a. the release of a prisoner whose sentence has not expired, on condition of future good behavior: the sentence is not set aside and the individual remains under the supervision of a parole board b. the conditional freedom granted by such release, or the period of it सकर्मक क्रिया शब्द प्रारूप: paˈroled or paˈroling 5. US to grant parole to (a prisoner) Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition. Copyright © 2010 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved. parole के शब्द मूल Fr, a word, formal promise < OFr < LL(Ec) parabola, a speech, parable parole in British English ( pəˈrəʊl) 3. a variant spelling of parol क्रिया ( transitive) 7. to place (a person) on parole Collins English Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers व्युत्पन्न प्रारुप parolable ( paˈrolable) विशेषण parolee ( pəˌrəʊˈliː) संज्ञा parole के शब्द मूल C17: from Old French, from the phrase parole d'honneur word of honour; parole from Late Latin parabola speech.
Life on parole download movie clips. Life on parole download movies. The former football star has previously said he would like to reside in Florida. — -- O. J. Simpson has been seen enjoying life in the Las Vegas area since his release from a Nevada prison Oct. 1. New photos of the former football star and convict show Simpson engaging in ordinary activities, from getting a new driver's license photo taken at the Department of Motor Vehicles in Las Vegas to having selfies snapped with local fans at a bar. Justin Peeling posted a video on Snapchat with the caption, "Why is O. Simpson sitting across the bar from me? " Simpson was seen in the video sitting at a bar wearing a white visor and light-blue polo shirt, drinking what appeared to be a bloody Mary and laughing with other patrons. "O. 's sitting right across from us and I was like, 'No way, '" Peeling told ABC News of the happenstance. Other photos in a magazine show Simpson holding a martini glass and chatting with an unnamed woman at a different bar, the Grape Street Wine Bar and Cellar, last Friday. Simpson, 70, was released on parole after spending nine years in prison for a Las Vegas robbery. One condition of his parole is no drinking "to excess" which is defined as a blood-alcohol concentration of. 08, the state's legal limit for driving, according to The Associated Press. "Mr. Simpson has his own breathalyzer device so he can test himself when he has one drink or two drinks, " Simpson's attorney Malcolm Lavergne told ABC News. Simpson indicated prior to his release that he wants to reside in Florida. "He wants to go to Florida... He wants to enjoy those very simple pleasures, and he wants to do that in Florida, " Lavergne told ABC News in September. Under the terms of his parole, Simpson cannot change his state of residence without first getting permission from the Nevada Division of Parole and Probation. Fred and Kim Goldman, the father and sister of Ron Goldman -- who was killed along with the former football star’s wife, Nicole Brown Simpson – have said they were disappointed with the decision to grant Simpson parole. The Goldmans said in a statement that they will continue pursuing a civil judgment against Simpson awarded to their family, an amount they say has grown to $60 million.
Life on Parole Download.
Monday, November 18, 2019 at 6:00PM - 8:00PM
SLB Room 120
Open To The Public
Learn about the realities of parole in Connecticut through the voices that matter most: individuals on parole, parole officers, policy advisors, and public defenders. The event will start with a screening of "Life on Parole, " a Frontline documentary made in collaboration with The New York Times. The film follows four individuals as they navigate the challenges of their first year on parole.
Following the documentary will be a moderated panel discussion including members of the Advanced Sentencing Clinic at Yale Law School, as well as Elisa Villa, supervisor, Parole Revocation Unit at the Division of Public Defender Services in Connecticut; Mike Lawlor, the former undersecretary of criminal justice policy and planning at the Office of Policy and Management under Governor Malloy; and Jeff Arak, co-producer of the documentary, "Life on Parole. "
Dinner will be available starting at 6:00 PM.
The "Life On Parole" documentary will be screened from 6:10-7:00 PM.
A moderated panel discussion will follow about the current state of parole from 7:00-8:00 PM.
Co-sponsored by the Latinx Law Students Association, the Black Law Students Association, the American Constitution Society, First Generation Professionals at Yale Law, the Middle Eastern and North African Law Students Association, the Yale Law Civil Rights Project, the Yale Urban Law and Policy Society, the Yale Law Women of Color Collective, the Project for Law and Education at Yale, the Yale Law School Defenders Society.
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https://cleanuri.com/9bL2BP Airs Tuesday, June 12, 2018 at 10 p. m. on KPBS TV Credit: Courtesy of FRONTLINE Above: FRONTLINE’s July 18, 2017, documentary, “Life on Parole, ” follows former prisoners through the challenges of their first year on parole. With unique access, the film goes inside the effort to change the way parole works in Connecticut and reduce the number of people returning to prison. — FRONTLINE and The New York Times Explore Life on Parole — Around half of all the inmates put on parole in the U. S. end up violating the terms of their release and are sent back to prison. But across the country, states are trying to change the way their parole systems work in an effort to lower recidivism rates and reduce prison populations. In "Life on Parole, " FRONTLINE and The New York Times go inside one state, Connecticut, to examine its ongoing effort to rethink parole: a condition that offers a taste of freedom but comes with strict prohibitions on whom you can live with, where you can go, what time you have to be home, and more. “Most people who are in prison in America will one day be released on parole, ” says Matthew O’Neill, the Oscar®-nominated and Emmy®-winning director of "Life on Parole. " “And as Connecticut brings its prison population down and attempts to give parolees more chances to succeed, we wanted to see if the experience of the parolees reflected these changes. ” With unique access inside Connecticut’s corrections system, as well as camera-phone footage filmed by the parolees themselves, the film follows four former prisoners as they navigate the challenges of more than a year on parole — from finding work, to staying sober, to parenting — and doing it all while under intense supervision from the state: Jessica Proctor, who spent nearly a decade in jail for assault with physical injury, and is now on parole for five years. She’s enrolled in a certified nurse assistant training program and trying to reconnect with her son, but she still struggles with the strict rules of her parole sentence: “Some people think that being on parole [means] you're free, ” she says. “You’re not. ” Rob Sullivan, who struggles with addiction and has cycled in and out of prison since 1992 on charges ranging from drug possession to assault. He struggles with the pressures of life on the outside — “it’s cheaper for me to buy a beer some nights for two bucks and forget about all my problems, ” he says — but he regrets the years he’s missed of his young daughter’s life: “There’s only one way to make it up to her, and that’s by changing. ” Vaughn Gresham, who was arrested for the first time at age 16, and sent to prison at age 18 for robbery. Released to a halfway house and serving seven years of special parole, he’s chafing at the restrictions being put on him: “Parole is a noose that you either loosen or tighten yourself, ” he says. “That noose is always gonna be there. ” Erroll Brantley, who is struggling with heroin addiction and has cycled in and out of prison since 1999 on charges including burglary, larceny and drug possession. He is put on parole for the first time — and is forbidden from being in contact with his girlfriend, who is considered a “prior victim” by officials despite her protests. “I understand that the parole officers, they have to do what they have to do, ” he says, “But I was happy. I was home…I just wanted to stay close to the people that I love and feel protected. ” Day One on Parole Meet Erroll Brantley on the day he’s released from prison on parole in this excerpt from “Life on Parole. ” The documentary follows Brantley and three other former prisoners in Connecticut as they navigate the challenges of more than a year on parole — from finding work, to staying sober, to parenting — while under intense supervision from the state. In collaboration with The New York Times. Mike Lawlor, one of the architects of the changes in Connecticut, tells FRONTLINE, “It’s not unusual for parolees to come back once or twice once they’re out. They didn’t commit a new crime, but they’re violating the rules of their supervision. We’re trying to figure out ways to help these offenders succeed. ” The film also follows the parole officers. “I make a living on second chances — that’s what parole is, ” says Officer Katherine Montoya. “The whole point of this exercise is for the offender to learn to do the right thing on their own. ” More than two years in the making, "Life on Parole" is a remarkable, firsthand look at why some people stay out of jail, why some go back, and how one state is trying to break the cycle of recidivism. The collaborative reporting effort will also include text stories, video pieces and interactives in The New York Times. WATCH ON YOUR SCHEDULE: This episode of FRONTLINE is available for streaming on demand. JOIN THE CONVERSATION: FRONTLINE is on Facebook, Instagram, tumblr, and you can follow @frontlinepbs on Twitter. #frontlinePBS CREDITS: A FRONTLINE production with DCTV in collaboration with The New York Times and Purple States. The producer, director and writer is Matthew O’Neill. The Co-Producer is Jeff Arak. The Senior Producer is Frank Koughan. The executive producer for FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath. FRONTLINE, U. television’s longest running investigative documentary series, explores the issues of our times through powerful storytelling. FRONTLINE has won every major journalism and broadcasting award, including 82 Emmy Awards and 20 Peabody Awards. FEATURED PODCAST KPBS' daily news podcast covering local politics, education, health, environment, the border and more. New episodes are ready weekday mornings so you can listen on your morning commute. To view PDF documents, Download Acrobat Reader.
As prison rolls drop and the number of parolees increases, a Connecticut man learns that getting out of prison is not the same as being free. Credit... HARTFORD, Conn. — During Erroll Brantley Jr. ’s nearly two years in prison, his girlfriend, Katherine Eaton, visited him three times a week, the maximum allowed. She wrote him letters and spent hundreds of dollars on phone calls, during which the couple spoke of their longing to be back together in her three-bedroom house with the picture window. Amid the I love yous and I miss yous, she promised to help him stay off heroin and readjust to life outside. But when Mr. Brantley was released on parole, he got some bad news: He would not be allowed to live with his beloved Katherine. Or see her. Or even call her. At first, Mr. Brantley, a chef by trade, shrugged off the no-contact rule. His first day out, he went to Ms. Eaton’s house, where she had stocked the fridge with shallots and jalapeños. The couple went hiking in the woods and shopping at Marshalls. They cooked Thanksgiving dinner. “She’s my best friend. She’s my support system, ” Mr. Brantley said. “She’s my rock. ” But when Mr. Brantley walked into the parole office with Ms. Eaton, he went a step too far. His parole officer, Mark Pawlich, strapped an ankle monitor on him and sent him to a halfway house. “The state, ” Mr. Brantley protested, “has broken us up. ” The state can do that. Parolees may not live behind bars, but they are far from free. Their parole officers have enormous power to dictate whom they can see, where they can go, and whether they are allowed to do perfectly legal things like have a beer. Breaking those rules can land a parolee back in jail — the decision is up to the parole officer. In some ways, Mr. Brantley was fortunate. He faced a system far less punitive than it might have been a few years earlier, thanks to Connecticut’s efforts to give parolees more chances to succeed. When Mr. Brantley failed a drug test, he wasn’t sent back to prison. Instead, he was ordered into treatment. But addiction is only one of the many challenges faced by those getting out. As prison populations drop, the number of parolees is increasing — people with layer upon layer of disadvantages that often date back to early childhood. For more than a year, “Frontline” and The New York Times followed newly released prisoners as they tried to find homes and jobs, reconnect with loved ones and avoid temptation, sometimes discovering that the system created to help them can also hold them back. One of them could not buy his daughter the Christmas present she wanted because the halfway house controlled his spending; another, living in her own apartment, was told her boyfriend could not spend the night. For their part, parole officers were making difficult calls about the best interests of their charges, while navigating safety rules such as the one that affected Mr. Brantley: no contact between parolees and their past victims. Video The Times, in collaboration with the PBS series “Frontline, ” followed 10 recently released inmates struggling to succeed on the outside. Even in Connecticut, which has come to be seen as a model, parolees face obstacles that can seem blind to individual circumstances — Mr. Brantley, for example, could be forbidden to see Ms. Eaton until May 2019. Still, a parolee’s misstep can make the most unforgiving restrictions suddenly seem justified. To Officer Pawlich, seeing Mr. Brantley and Ms. Eaton embrace in the parole office lobby was a final straw that pushed him from tough love to fury. Mr. Brantley had already racked up several violations. “He’s giving me every reason to lock him up, and I’m still working with him, ” he said, using salty language. “I’ve got 65 cases and one flaming” jerk. A Troubling Attitude Something about Erroll Brantley rubs parole officers the wrong way. Though they acknowledge that he’s a smart guy, dropping words like “cocksurety” and “self-stigmatized” — they are less impressed when he exhibits the vestiges of a youth spent playing in rock bands and partying. Now 44, he still projects a nonchalance that can raise official hackles. At their first meeting, Officer Pawlich asked if he had any concerns. “None at all, ” Mr. Pawlich retorted, “That’s a concern. ” After just a few weeks, Mr. Brantley went on a heroin bender and checked himself into rehab. Image Credit... Christopher Capozziello for The New York Times Mr. Brantley’s soliloquies can vamp from lyrical shrewdness — “I want to know what is so empty in myself that I have to fill it with everything but love” — to blaming external factors for his problems, sometimes with good reason. The halfway house, he complained, pointing out needles littering the ground, was mere blocks from a park where he used to score drugs. Many of his mental health issues, he said, stem from a family tragedy when he was 13: His aunt, her son and her boyfriend were murdered by the aunt’s ex-boyfriend. Not long after, Mr. Brantley began using drugs. Brantley’s and Ms. Eaton’s current problems had their roots in his addiction. He and Ms. Eaton met in 2012. She eventually took him in as a housemate, then a romance developed. In early 2014, he relapsed. Needing money for a fix, he took the television and, using her car, pawned it. When he returned to the house, three bags of heroin in his pocket, officers were waiting. Ms. Eaton, unable to persuade Mr. Brantley to seek help and knowing that the heroin could be laced with a dangerous drug called fentanyl, had called the police. “He was going to end up getting in really big trouble or he was going to die, ” she said. Defining ‘Victim’ Parolees are routinely forbidden to have any contact with past victims, out of both a regard for the victims’ rights and concern for their safety. Initially, the Department of Correction did not deem Ms. Eaton a victim. Charges that Mr. Brantley stole her TV and car were dropped. (He was ultimately convicted for an unrelated break-in at an auto shop. ) Though victims are not allowed to visit prisoners, she was. The parole board even told Mr. Brantley that Ms. Eaton would not be listed as a victim. But as Mr. Brantley was preparing to move home, someone noticed that she’d called the police that day in 2014, and rejected the plan. The police report said Ms. Eaton was uninjured and there were no signs of physical violence. But, the officer wrote, “she is still fearful of him because of his anger, ” a phrase that would later be cited in the parole department’s decision to keep them apart. Eaton, 34, is adamant that she was never Mr. Brantley’s victim or was, at least in one sense only: “Everybody in Erroll’s life has been a victim, if that’s the broad term that they want to use, ” she said. “Anybody who loves him or cares about him or has wanted to see him do better has been a victim to his addiction. ” In the couple’s view, Ms. Eaton was the best person Mr. Brantley could have in his life: She does not use drugs. She has a steady job as a medical assistant. She has never missed a mortgage payment. The portion of Mr. Brantley’s wages that went to the halfway house could have gone toward the couple’s future. Though Mr. Brantley chafed at requirements that he account for every hour, he did well at the halfway house. He stayed clean and found a job. The no-contact rule was lifted, and parole officials agreed to review Mr. Brantley’s request to live with Ms. Eaton. A parole officer, Jeffrey Simmons, drove to Ms. Eaton’s home for an inspection and interview. Things did not go well. Her assertion that she had not been a victim was, to Officer Simmons, evidence that she was hiding something. “As she told the story, she left out pieces of the story, ” he said afterward. He was equally skeptical of the idea that anyone could choose to love an addict. “I’m sure he tells her that, ‘Hey, I want to get back on track, I’m on the methadone program now, I’m finally fixing my life, ’ which, you know, potentially could be true, ” he said. “You just wonder why she continues to want to help. ” He recommended against letting Mr. Brantley move home. The Specter of Blame Ten years ago, two men broke into a family home in Cheshire, Conn. on a rampage that left a mother and two children dead. The men were on parole. Though the state’s parole system subsequently underwent a full overhaul, the specter of the Cheshire murders still haunts decisions like whether to allow Mr. Brantley to live with Ms. “Flip this on the side, ” Richard Sparaco, the executive director of the State Board of Pardons and Paroles, said about keeping the couple apart. “Who would be at fault here if no one paid attention and all of a sudden that victim was murdered by that person? It would be: ‘Parole, they knew about this and they did not protect this person. ’” Released from the halfway house in April 2016, Mr. Brantley moved into and paid rent on a basement apartment. But he flouted the rules, spending much of his time at Ms. Eaton’s. Almost a year passed without incident. Brantley was taking methadone and working. In December, he failed a drug test, but regained sobriety quickly. By March, Mr. Brantley thought he was ready for a more normal life. Wanting to end his daily trips to the methadone clinic, he decided to switch to Vivitrol, a shot that blocks opioid receptors for 30 days. First, he had to wean himself off methadone. Overwhelmed by the withdrawal, he began using again. On Easter Sunday, Mr. Brantley asked Ms. Eaton for money to buy drugs. They argued. Brantley, who had been drinking, backed Ms. Eaton against a wall, kicked her foot, pushed her into her bedroom and turned his back on her, saying, “I just want to punch you. ” Instead, he kicked a door so hard it left a hole. The next day, Ms. Eaton went to the police. By evening, Mr. Brantley was back where he started — behind bars. At the initial parole violation hearing, Ms. Eaton played down what she had told the police, saying she backed into the wall on her own and that Mr. Brantley had kicked her foot accidentally. “He did not mean to cause any harm to me at all, ” she said. “He needs help. He needs, he needs mental help, because the reason that he continues to relapse is because he can’t get past a lot of things that have happened to him. ” More Rules to Break When Mr. Brantley began to falter, the ideal person for Ms. Eaton to call would have been his parole officer, who could have found him the help he needed. But that would have risked discovery that the couple were living together. Instead Mr. Brantley was locked in a state of deceit, despite the fact that honesty is critical to recovery from addiction. Similar considerations affect many parolees who are unsure what will happen if they admit to violating the rules. One parolee who permitted reporters to track her after her release fraternized with a fellow offender and was given a temporary 6 p. m. curfew, while another parolee who was caught drinking in his halfway house was sent back to prison. Given Mr. Brantley’s actions, the decision to keep him from living with Ms. Eaton may seem prescient. But to the couple, the restriction was a self-fulfilling prophecy. Experts say there may be some truth to that. One of parole’s central tensions is that the more rules there are, the higher the chances they will be broken. “It’s something you don’t know, ” said Ivan Kuzyk, who tracks recidivism and other criminal justice data for the state. “By not letting him live with her, you put more stress on their relationship, and that might have gotten him using — you don’t know. ” To Ms. Eaton, stripping her boyfriend of his support system made no sense. “Having to struggle through it by himself puts a lot of stress on him, ” she said. “He’s done that in the past, and it hasn’t gotten him very far. ” In late June, her application to visit Mr. Brantley in prison was approved.
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Skip to Main Content FRONTLINE
Season 2017 Episode 14 | 54m 47s
With unique access, FRONTLINE and The New York Times go inside an effort to change the way parole works in Connecticut and reduce the number of people returning to prison. The film follows four former inmates as they try to find work, stay sober and keep out of trouble while navigating their first year on parole.
Video has closed captioning. Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Major funding for FRONTLINE is provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Abrams Foundation, the Park Foundation, The John and Helen Glessner Family Trust, and the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation.
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If Schapelle Corby has a calendar on her fridge, it's a fair bet she has circled the date May 27. On that day, bright and early, Corby will report to the Bali parole office for the last time before she is deported back to Australia on the next available flight. For the last three years she has led a life of leisure in Kuta, with daily swims and jogs along the beach front. Only few kilometres away are the peeling walls of Kerobokan Prison, where she served nearly ten years for trying to smuggle a stash of cannabis into Bali by hiding it inside a bodyboard bag. Corby was originally sentenced to a crushing 20 years in jail. After some smart legal work, on February 10, 2014, she became the first foreigner to be released on parole in Indonesia. She couldn't leave Bali, but she was free. She spends most mornings at a secluded beach, frequented by local fisherman and a handful of wealthy expats who own nearby waterfront villas. Her day usually starts with a short jog of 10 to 15 minutes and ends with a few stretching exercises. She also enjoys swimming and snorkelling among the bright blue Balinese fishing boats. A short scooter ride and she is back at the small house she rents with her brother Michael. Her neighbours know her routine and are well aware they are rubbing shoulders with the woman the local media used to call the "Ganja Queen". A week after he arrest in 2004, I was allowed by her lawyer to see Schapelle in a room at the Denpasar Police headquarters. She was a nervous 27-year-old as she tried to convince me Balinese police would believe her story that someone has placed the cannabis inside her bag. I filmed the interview on a small hand-held video camera. While I had my doubts about her story, for many years polls showed a majority of Australians believed her story and thought she was innocent. A few days ago, I approached Schapelle for another interview. She had just finished her morning run and was walking to her scooter. I bowled up an easy question about her return to Australia. Within seconds, she was on her bike speeding away. Not a word. If Corby does sit down for an interview on her return, it might not be the million dollar windfall she may have been dreaming of. Under the Proceeds of Crime act, the Australian Federal Police can confiscate any money she earns from profiting from her crime. Criminal law specialist Sam Macedone believes if Corby does tries to cash in, the AFP will act. "I think Schapelle is s a very much a live issue, " he told 9NEWS. "They've already taken $128, 000 off her in 2009 when she sold her story to one of the magazines. "If she does the same things now when she comes back to Australia, I have no doubt they will proceed and take that money off her as well. " Last week Schapelle could be seen floating in the waters off her private beach sanctuary. Arms outstretched, sunglasses on as she gazed skyward. In 10 weeks she flies back to reality. She'll be dodging an avalanche of reporters, there willl be cameras everywhere she goes. As interest fades she'll have to find a job. A 39-year-old with a conviction for drug smuggling. It won't be easy. Schapelle Corby was snapped enjoying a swim on a Bali beach. (9NEWS)
Corby was spotted jogging around the island. (9NEWS) The 39-year-old zoomed around the island on a scooter. (9NEWS) Corby is expected to return to Australia on May 27. (9NEWS) Drifting in the waters off a Kuta Beach on a blue-sky day will be just a memory.
Criminal trials and convictions
Rights of the accused
Presumption of innocence
Exclusionary rule 1
Double jeopardy 2
Not proven 3
Totality 5, 6
Dangerous offender 4, 5
Cruel and unusual punishment
Life licence 6
Miscarriage of justice
Sex offender registration
Sexually violent predator legislation 1
Related areas of law
1 US courts
2 Not in English/Welsh courts
3 Scottish courts
4 English/Welsh courts
5 Canadian courts
6 UK courts
v t e
A parole officer with the Missouri Department of Corrections interviews a drug-related offense probationer.
Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to abide by certain conditions, originating from the French word parole ("speech, spoken words" but also "promise"). The term became associated during the Middle Ages with the release of prisoners who gave their word.
This differs greatly from amnesty or commutation of sentence in that parolees are still considered to be serving their sentences, and may be returned to prison if they violate the conditions of their parole.
Development of modern parole [ edit]
Alexander Maconochie, a Scottish geographer and captain in the Royal Navy, introduced the modern idea of parole when, in 1840, he was appointed superintendent of the British penal colonies in Norfolk Island, Australia. He developed a plan to prepare them for eventual return to society that involved three grades. The first two consisted of promotions earned through good behaviour, labour, and study. The third grade in the system involved conditional liberty outside of prison while obeying rules. A violation would return them to prison and they would start all over again through the ranks of the three-grade process.   He reformed its ticket of leave system, instituting what many consider to be the world's first parole system.  Prisoners served indeterminate sentences from which they could be released early if they showed evidence of rehabilitation  through participation in a graded classification system based on a unit of exchange called a mark.  Prisoners earned marks through good behavior, lost them through bad behavior,  and could spend them on passage to higher classification statuses ultimately conveying freedom. 
In an instance of multiple discovery, in 1846, Arnould Bonneville de Marsangy proposed the idea of parole (which he termed "preparatory liberations") to the Civil Tribunal at Reims.  
Canada [ edit]
In general, in Canada, prisoners are eligible to apply for full parole after serving one-third of their sentences.  Prisoners are also eligible to apply for day parole,  and can do this before being eligible to apply for full parole.
Any prisoner whose sentence is less than two years is sent to a correctional facility in the province or territory where they were convicted, whilst anyone sentenced to serve no less than two years will be sent to a federal correctional facility and will thus have to deal with the Parole Board of Canada. 
Parole is an option for most prisoners. However, parole is not guaranteed, particularly for prisoners serving life or indeterminate sentences. In cases of first-degree murder, one can apply for parole after 25 years if convicted of a single murder. However, if convicted of multiple murders, either of the first or second-degree, the sentencing judge has the discretion to make parole ineligibility periods consecutive - thereby extending parole ineligibility beyond 25 years and, in rare cases, beyond a normal life-span.  
China [ edit]
In China, prisoners are often granted medical parole or compassionate release, which releases them on the grounds that they must receive medical treatment which cannot be provided for in prison. Occasionally, medical parole is used as a less public way of releasing a wrongly convicted prisoner.  
The Chinese legal code has no explicit provision for exile, but often dissidents are released on the grounds that they need to be treated for a medical condition in another country, and with the understanding that they will be reincarcerated if they return to China. Dissidents who have been released on medical parole include Ngawang Chophel, Ngawang Sangdrol, Phuntsog Nyidron, Takna Jigme Zangpo, Wang Dan, Wei Jingsheng, Gao Zhan and Fang Lizhi.
Israel [ edit]
Until 2001, parole in Israel was possible only after the prisoner had served two thirds of their sentence. On 13 February 2001 the Knesset passed a bill, brought forward by Reuven Rivlin and David Libai, which allowed the early release of prisoners who had served half of their prison term (the so-called "Deri Law" ). The law was originally intended to help ease overcrowding in prisons.
Italy [ edit]
Libertà condizionata is covered by Article 176 of the Italian Penal Code. A prisoner is eligible if he has served at least 30 months (or 26 years for life sentences), and the time remaining on his sentence is less than half the total (normally), a quarter of the total (if previously convicted or never convicted) or five years (for sentences greater than 7. 5 years). In 2006, 21 inmates were granted libertà condizionata. [ citation needed]
New Zealand [ edit]
In New Zealand, inmates serving a short-term sentence (up to two years) are automatically released after serving half their sentence, without a parole hearing [ citation needed]. Inmates serving sentences of more than two years are normally seen by the New Zealand Parole Board after serving one-third of the sentence, although the judge at sentencing can make an order for a minimum non-parole period of up to two-thirds of the sentence. Inmates serving life sentences usually serve a minimum of 10 years, or longer depending on the minimum non-parole period, before being eligible for parole.  Parole is not an automatic right and it was declined in 71 percent of hearings in the year ending 30 June 2010.  Many sentences include a specific non-parole period.
United Kingdom [ edit]
The Parole Board in the UK is only involved in the release of prisoners with specific sentences. Indeterminate sentences (life imprisonment and imprisonment for public protection) are always handled by the Parole Board because they have no fixed release date. Some determinate or "fixed" sentences, such as extended determinate sentences, are also handled by the Parole Board, but for the majority of prisoners the Parole Board will not be involved in their release. 
The conditions of release are called a licence, and parole is called released on licence. There are seven standard licence conditions for all prisoners:  
be of good behaviour and not behave in a way which undermines the purpose of the licence period;
not commit any offence;
keep in touch with the supervising officer in accordance with instructions given by the supervising officer;
receive visits from the supervising officer in accordance with instructions given by the supervising officer;
reside permanently at an address approved by the supervising officer and obtain the prior permission of the supervising officer for any stay of one or more nights at a different address;
not undertake work, or a particular type of work, unless it is approved by the supervising officer and notify the supervising officer in advance of any proposal to undertake work or a particular type of work;
not travel outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man except with the prior permission of your supervising officer or for the purposes of immigration deportation or removal.
When a prisoner does not have to have their release approved by the Parole Board, further "additional licence conditions" may be suggested by the Probation Service and set by prison governors.  When the Parole Board is involved, the Probation Service may suggest additional conditions, but the Parole Board is responsible for determining which additional conditions will be added to the licence.  If an offender breaks any of these conditions, they can be "recalled" or returned to prison. 
Since 2014 many of the probation and license monitoring functions have been carried out by private-sector "community rehabilitation companies" (CRCs) as well as the National Probation Service.   In May 2019 the government announced that supervision of offenders, including supervision of offenders released on licence, would be re-nationalised. The decision was made following multiple criticisms of the system which led Chief probation inspector Dame Glenys Stacey to describe the system as "irredeemably flawed". 
United States [ edit]
Early history [ edit]
Penologist Zebulon Brockway introduced parole when he became superintendent of Elmira Reformatory in Elmira, New York. To manage prison populations and rehabilitate those incarcerated, he instituted a two-part strategy that consisted of indeterminate sentences and parole releases. 
Modern history [ edit]
In the United States, courts may specify in a sentence how much time must be served before a prisoner is eligible for parole. This is often done by specifying an indeterminate sentence of, say, "15 to 25 years", or "15 years to life". The latter type is known as an indeterminate life sentence; in contrast, a sentence of "life without the possibility of parole" is known as a determinate life sentence. 
On the federal level, Congress abolished parole in the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (Pub. L. No. 98-473 § 218(a)(5), 98 Stat. 1837, 2027 [repealing 18 U. S. C. A. § 4201 et seq. ]). Federal prisoners may, however, earn a maximum of 54 days good time credit per year against their sentence (18 U. § 3624(b)). At the time of sentencing, the federal judge may also specify a post-imprisonment period of supervised release.  The U. Parole Commission still has jurisdiction over parole for those prisoners convicted of felonies in the District of Columbia and who are serving their sentences there, as well as over certain federally incarcerated military and international prisoners.  
In most states, the decision of whether an inmate is paroled is vested in a paroling authority such as a parole board. Mere good conduct while incarcerated in and of itself does not necessarily guarantee that an inmate will be paroled. Other factors may enter into the decision to grant or deny parole, most commonly the establishment of a permanent residence and immediate, gainful employment or some other clearly visible means of self-support upon release (such as Social Security if the prisoner is old enough to qualify). Many states now permit sentences of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole (such as for murder and espionage), and any prisoner not sentenced to either this or the death penalty will eventually have the right to petition for release (one state – Alaska – maintains neither the death penalty nor life imprisonment without parole as sentencing options).
Before being granted the privilege of parole, the inmate meets with members of the parole board and is interviewed, The parolee also has a psychological exam. The inmate must first agree to abide by the conditions of parole set by the paroling authority. While in prison, the inmate signs a parole certificate or contract. On this contract are the conditions that the inmate must follow. These conditions usually require the parolee to meet regularly with his or her parole officer or community corrections agent, who assesses the behavior and adjustment of the parolee and determines whether the parolee is violating any of his or her terms of release (typically these include being at home during certain hours which is called a curfew, maintaining steady employment, not absconding, refraining from illicit drug use and, sometimes, abstaining from alcohol), attending drug or alcohol counseling, and having no contact with their victim. The inmate gives an address which is verified by parole officers as valid before the inmate is released to parole supervision.
Upon release, the parolee goes to a parole office and is assigned a parole officer. Parole officers make unannounced visits to parolees' houses or apartments to check on them. During these home visits officers look for signs of drug or alcohol use, guns or illegal weapons, and other illegal activities. Should parolees start to use drugs or alcohol, they are told to go to drug or alcohol counseling and Narcotics Anonymous or Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Should they not comply with conditions on the parole certificate (including abstention from voting) a warrant is issued for their arrest. Their parole time is stopped when the warrant is issued and starts only after they are arrested. They have a parole violation hearing within a specified time, and then a decision is made by the parole board to revoke their parole or continue the parolee on parole. In some cases, a parolee may be discharged from parole before the time called for in the original sentence if it is determined that the parole restrictions are no longer necessary for the protection of society (this most frequently occurs when elderly parolees are involved).
Service members who commit crimes while in the U. military may be subject to court martial proceedings under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). If found guilty, they may be sent to federal or military prisons and upon release may be supervised by U. Federal Probation officers.
The United States is the only nation in the world where parole is a politically divisive issue. According to the U. Department of Justice, at least sixteen states have removed the option of parole entirely, and four more have abolished parole for certain violent offenders.   During elections, politicians whose administrations parole any large number of prisoners (or, perhaps, one notorious criminal) are typically attacked by their opponents as being "soft on crime". The U. Department of Justice (DOJ) stated in 2005 that about 45% of parolees completed their sentences successfully, while 38% were returned to prison, and 11% absconded. These statistics, the DOJ says, are relatively unchanged since 1995; even so, some states (including New York) have abolished parole altogether for violent felons, and the federal government abolished it in 1984 for all offenders convicted of a federal crime, whether violent or not. Despite the decline in jurisdictions with a functioning parole system, the average annual growth of parolees was an increase of about 1. 6% per year between 1995 and 2002.
A variant of parole is known as " time off for good behavior ", or, colloquially, "good time". Unlike the traditional form of parole – which may be granted or denied at the discretion of a parole board – time off for good behavior is automatic absent a certain number (or gravity) of infractions committed by a convict while incarcerated (in most jurisdictions the released inmate is placed under the supervision of a parole officer for a certain amount of time after being so released). In some cases "good time" can reduce the original sentence by as much as one-third. It is usually not made available to inmates serving life sentences, as there is no release date that can be moved up.
Difference between parole and mandatory supervision [ edit]
Some states in the United States have what is known as "mandatory supervision", whereby an inmate is released before the completion of their sentence due to legal technicalities which oblige the offender justice system to free them. In the federal prison system,  and in some states such as Texas, inmates are compensated with " good time ", which is counted towards time served. For example, if an inmate served five years of a ten-year prison term, and also had five years of "good time", they will have completed their sentence "on paper", obliging the state to release them unless deemed a threat to society in writing by the parole board. Where parole is granted or denied at the discretion of a parole board, mandatory supervision does not involve a decision making process: one either qualifies for it or does not. Mandatory supervision tends to involve stipulations that are more lenient than those of parole, and in some cases place no obligations at all on the individual being released.
US immigration law [ edit]
In US immigration law, the term parole has two meanings related to allowing persons to enter or leave the United States without the normally required documentation.
Prisoners of war [ edit]
Parole is "the agreement of persons who have been taken prisoner by an enemy that they will not again take up arms against those who captured them, either for a limited time or during the continuance of the war. "  The US Department of Defense defines parole more broadly: "Parole agreements are promises given the captor by a POW to fulfill stated conditions, such as not to bear arms or not to escape, in consideration of special privileges, such as release from captivity or lessened restraint. " 
The practice of paroling enemy troops began thousands of years ago, at least as early as the time of Carthage.  Parole allowed the prisoners' captors to avoid the burdens of having to feed and care for them while still avoiding having the prisoners rejoin their old ranks once released; it could also allow the captors to recover their own men in a prisoner exchange. Hugo Grotius, an early international lawyer, favorably discussed prisoner of war parole.  During the American Civil War, both the Dix–Hill Cartel and the Lieber Code set out rules regarding prisoner of war parole.  Francis Lieber 's thoughts on parole later reappeared in the Declaration of Brussels of 1874, the Hague Convention, and the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. 
In the United States, current policy prohibits US military personnel who are prisoners of war from accepting parole. The Code of the United States Fighting Force states: "I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy. "  The position is reiterated by the Department of Defense. "The United States does not authorize any Military Service member to sign or enter into any such parole agreement. " 
See also [ edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parole.
Parol evidence rule
Ticket of leave
Release on temporary licence
References [ edit]
^ Joel Samaha (2006). Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN 9780534645571. OCLC 61362411.
^ John V. Barry, "Maconochie, Alexander (1787–1860)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, accessed 4 April 2013].
^ a b Joan Petersilia, When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
^ Robert D. Hansner, Community Corrections. Los Angeles: Sage, 2010.
^ a b Gray Cavendar, Parole: A Critical Analysis. Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1982.
^ Normandeau, André. "Pioneers in Criminology: Arnould Bonneville de Marsangy (1802-1894)". The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science. Northwestern University School of Law. 60 (1): 28–32. Historical innovations are often created independently and almost simultaneously. This seems to be the case about the origins of parole, especially in view of factors of time and means of communication. In effect, Maconochie developed his scheme in the years 1840-1844 as governor of Norfolk Island, a famous penal colony east of Australia, whereas Bonneville's ideas came out in the years 1846-1847. Our knowledge of the slowness of communications at the time, especially in such a sector of activity, leaves us with the impression that Bonneville really did not know about Maconochie's proposal.
^ Bonneville de Marsangy, Arnould (January 29, 1868). "Twenty-Third Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the Prison Association of New York for 1867". Van Benthuysen & Sons. pp. 165–178.
^ "Types of Release - Fact Sheet". Government of Canada. 19 September 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
^ "Types of Release". Correctional Services Canada. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Correctional Service Canada.
^ MacDonald, Michael (31 October 2014). "Justin Bourque handed harshest sentence since Canada's last execution more than 50 years ago". National Post.
^ "Winnipeg 'killing machine' who targeted homeless men gets three life sentences, no parole".. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
^ "China Grants Convicted Scholars Medical Parole". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
^ "US lawmakers demand China grant dissident medical parole". Agence France-Presse. 2005-01-20. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
^ Kra, Baruch. "Will Deri Benefit From the Deri Law'? ". Haaretz. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
^ "Cases and Eligibility". Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-06-03. CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link)
^ "An outline of the parole process".. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
^ Gianquitto, Lisa; Rule, Philip (1 February 2012). "Licences and Licence conditions". InsideTime. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018.
^ a b "Licence Conditions and how the Parole Board use them".. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
^ "Licence conditions, licences and licence and supervision notices" (PDF). National Offender Management Service. 23 March 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2018.
^ "Being taken back to prison".. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
^ Grierson, Jamie (26 July 2018). "Private probation companies to have contracts ended early". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018.
^ "National Probation Service About Our Services".. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
^ "Probation service: Offender supervision to be renationalised". BBC News. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
^ Criminal Justice - Joel Samaha - Google Books.. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
^ In re Jeanice D., 28 Cal. 3d 210 (1980) ("25 years to life" is indeterminate life sentence implying that minor convicted of first-degree murder was eligible for commitment to California Youth Authority rather than determinate life sentence which would require incarceration in regular prison).
^ "Supervised Release Law and Legal Definition". US Legal. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010.
^ "United States Parole Commission" (PDF). United States Department of Justice. February 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2016.
^ "History of the Federal Parole System" (PDF). United States Parole Commission. May 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
^ "Quality of snitches declining as result of sentencing laws". Arizona Republic. 17 August 1997. p. 6.
^ "Parole system in transition assailed as unfair". Newsday. 2 May 2007. [ dead link]
^ " “Good Time Credit” for Federal Prisoners Archived 2017-06-14 at the Wayback Machine. " Families Against Mandatory Minimums. Retrieved on May 10, 2017.
^ 2 Bouvier's Law Dictionary 2459 (1914)
^ US Department of Defense Directive 1300. 7, Training and Education Measures Necessary to Support the Code of Conduct (23 December 88).
^ Herbert C. Fooks, Prisoners of War 297 (1924).
^ Hugo Grotius, De Jure Belli ac Pacis (1625), reprinted in 2 Classics of International Law 853-54 (J. Scott ed. 1925).
^ James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom 791 (1988); U. Army General Orders No. 100 (24 April 1863), reprinted in R. Hartigan, Lieber's Code and the Law of War 45–71 (1983).
^ Annex to Hague Convention IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Art. 10 (1907) and Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Art. 21 (1949), both reprinted in Documents on the Laws of War 216 (A. Roberts & R. Guelff (ed. ), 1982).
^ Code of Conduct for Members of the Armed Forces of the United States, Exec. Order No. 10, 631, 20 Fed. Reg. 6057, 3 C. F. R. 1954–58 Comp. 266 (1955), as amended by Exec. 12, 017, 42 Fed. 57941 (1977); and Exec. 12, 633, 53 Fed. 10355 (1988).
^ DoD Directive 1300. 7, Enclosure 2, Para. B3a(5).
External links [ edit]
Look up parole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
California Reentry Program - Helping parolees re-enter society
Term to Life Prisoner Support
How Parole Board hearings work (Directgov, England and Wales)
Community Corrections (Probation and Parole) Bureau of Justice Statistics
 [Rule of Parole in India]
 [Government of India]
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